Hi, I am a young 15 year old believer however I have recently been struggling with how we establish the moral dimension that seems to be external to humans. I will concede that there seems to be some morals which usurp other people's morality and seem to unify many humans although there are still some exceptions such as sadists and so forth. I also seem to think it is difficult to comprehend a morality that isn't contingent upon humans as morality seems to necessitate a moral agent. I wonder if someone could provide some help or give me some sort of thought experiment to assist me . I hope I have worded this correctly and my ideas don't appear too stupid to some as I am only young and learning Thanks, Finbar.
This may not be what you are looking for, but I would explain morality thusly:Morality is the product of human (and possibly other sentient) biological and social evolution. Humans survive better as members of social groups than as "lone wolves." Humans survive better as members of thriving social groups. Social groups survive better (as societies) and thrive better when they inculcate in their members the value of reciprocity (one expression of which is the "golden rule"). As such human societies have evolved to share this value, and that is what we identify as morality. It is morally right to obey the principle of reciprocity and morally wrong to violate it. That I believe is the origin of morality. Notice a few things: morality is determined by a social evolutionary imperative. It is not a matter of personal opinion or even social fashion. That means that epistemically speaking it is objectively true that harming another person without justification is morally wrong. At this sort of basic level morality is epistemically objective, which simply means, not a matter of personal opinion or fashion. Like all tautologies it is "eternally true. " quotes because I think that's a somewhat misleading term. Also notice that as a value morality is ontologically subjective. That is just to say that it is mind-dependent. A value requires an evaluation and that requires sentient beings (minds) to make the evaluation. If there were a world with no sentient beings in it there would certainly be no such thing as morality.