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Links showing Ps 22:16 "like a lion" is wrong
« on: January 10, 2020, 09:06:44 am »
There's a lot of controversy that Psalm 22:16 KJV translation showing "pierced" is spurious and should be translated as "like a lion" according to most Masoretic texts. Here are links showing that Jewish  translators originally did not see it that way:

1. Septuagint or LXX (circa 150 BCE): Translated from some unknown Hebrew manuscript to the Greek word "ôruxan" meaning pierced. See here.
2. Aquila of Sinope (circa 170 CE): Ugly and bind are both used [he is a Jewish translator using an unknown Hebrew manuscript from that time]. See here where he translated the Hebrew to "ugly" [not sure of the Greek word used but it evidently came from the Midrash] and see here where he translated Greek "epedêsan" as bind. I believe it is the latter that survived as a Psalm 22 fragment of Origen's Hexapla in the Cairo Genizah Palimpsests located in the Library Of the University of Cambridge.
3. Jerome's Vulgate (circa 382 CE): translates to Latin "fixerunt" meaning to "pierce" from some unknown Hebrew source. See here.
4. Symmachus (circa 180 CE): You can see here showing that he took some unknown Hebrew manuscript and translated to the Greek word "ôxzêtountes dêsai" meaning bind. His translation is also part of Origen's Hexapla fragment of Psalm 22 that survived as part of the Cairo Genizah Palimpsest.
5. Theodotion (circa 150 CE): He also took from an unknown Hebrew manuscript but apparently the column of Hebrew that Origen used and Theodotion's column did not survive.
6. Midrash: Here says that Aquila may have borrowed the ugly translation from the Midrash. Here, I believe, is the textual support:

Midrash on Psalm 22,

For dogs have compassed me (Psalm 22:17) - that is, Haman's sons have compassed me; the assembly of the wicked have enclosed me (ibid.)-that is, Haman's hosts have enclosed me. My hands and my feet they made repulsive (1) (Psalm 22:17). According to R. Judah, Esther said: 'Though Haman's sons practiced sorcery on me so that in the sight of Ahaseurus my hands and feet were repulsive, yet a miracle was wrought for me, and my hands and my feet were made to shine like sapphires.'

Note: Ka'aru means "dig" and not pierced, but time has a way  of impacting the meaning of words. See skunked terms. This naturally happens over periods of decades, but here we're talking hundreds and even a thousand years. Ultimately we have to follow Wittgenstein's dictum that "meaning is use." Above we have multiple examples of use which shows how ka'aru appears to have been translated much nearer to the time in question.
« Last Edit: January 10, 2020, 09:10:15 am by Harvey »